How the NATO PMESII is a subset of STEMPLES Plus
PSYOPS requires a thorough understanding of the target audience and their context, collected through various intelligence sources and analyzed using comprehensive frameworks like STEMPLES Plus and PMESII. This understanding underpins the design and implementation of PSYOPS campaigns and allows for an accurate assessment of their effectiveness.
Psychological Operations (PSYOPS) rely heavily on extensive research, intelligence, and information about potential target audiences. This information includes understanding the target audience's identity, location, vulnerabilities, susceptibilities, strengths, and weaknesses. PSYOPS also necessitates comprehensive knowledge about various contextual factors influencing the audience's attitudes and behaviors.
The Treadstone 71 STEMPLES Plus model provides a detailed framework for this kind of analysis. The acronym stands for Social, Technological, Economic, Military, Political, Legal, Educational, Security, plus Religion, Demographics, Infrastructure, Health, Psychological Makeup, and the Physical Environment. It is a comprehensive framework designed to understand the factors that might impact an audience's responses to PSYOPS.
"PMESII' stands for Political, Military, Economic, Social, Infrastructure, and Information. PMESII is another framework that aligns with STEMPLES Plus used by PSYOPS professionals to understand the context in which their target audience operates.
- Political: Understanding the political dynamics, power structures, and influential actors.
- Military: Grasping the military structures and capabilities, including alliances, rivalries, and power dynamics.
- Economic: Comprehending the economic situation, such as income levels, employment rates, and primary industries.
- Social: Evaluating social and cultural characteristics, traditions, beliefs, and value systems.
- Infrastructure: Assessing physical infrastructure like roads, bridges, and buildings, as well as digital infrastructure.
- Information: Understanding the communication landscape, including access to and use of media and information technologies.
The collection of this information should come from all available sources and agencies. The process is part of a broader intelligence requirements management plan, ensuring a holistic view that integrates all relevant aspects. This could involve a variety of intelligence sources, including human intelligence (HUMINT), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and open-source intelligence (OSINT).
Intelligence is also critical for determining the effectiveness of PSYOPS activities. By comparing pre- and post-operation data, one can gauge the impact of the PSYOPS campaign. Gauging the impact involves monitoring changes in the audience's attitudes, behaviors, or perceptions or noting shifts in the broader PMESII indicators.